Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

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paulmcleod67
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Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by paulmcleod67 » Fri Feb 02, 2018 12:21 am

THE MARSUPIAL CONNECTION WITH SOUTH AMERICA AND IMPACT INDUCED CRUSTAL DISPLACEMENT: A POSSIBLE WORKAROUND TO THE WALLACE LINE YOWIE CONUNDRUM.

The Fugian people of Brazil’s Amazonia region, carry distinctive DNA sequences that identify them as the descendants of an earlier wave of colonists known as the Australoids. This Genetic link to the Austaloids is also common in Australian Aboriginals.
One of the most promising places to look for more definitive evidence linking an ancient Australoids population in the Americas with modern Australoid populations in south-east Asia and AustralIa is southernmost South America and the near-extinct indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego known as the Fuegians
One of the most distinctive ancient skulls from the Americas was discovered by a French-Brazilian archaeological team in Vermelho Cave, near Belo Horizonte in south-eastern Brazil in 1973.The skull, that of a young woman dubbed “Luzia”, yielded a radiocarbon age of 10,030 years. Its narrow, oval cranium with a projecting face and lower chin, resembled the skulls of modern Australoid peoples like Australia’s Aborigines, Melanesians, and the various South-east Asian peoples.
There is a bigger mystery involving the comonality of marsupials from Australia and South America. In fact Australian systematic zoology teems with forms exhibiting South American affinities. Curiously enough, many of these forms find their nearest relatives in Chili [Chile].
South America has a host of marsupial species, from the dwarf fat-tailed mouse opposum to the yapok, an aquatic marsupial. Paleontologists have long wondered, When did the marsupials cross between Australia and the Americas?
Recent studies suggest that all or most of Australia's marsupials derive from an order of early North American marsupials of which today just a single representative exists, a sprightly, mouse-sized critter native to southern Chile known as the monito del monte, or "small monkey of the mountains. Both continents had catlike marsupial predators with interesting dentition. The Thylacoleonids which were Australian and had large pronounced incisors which are believed to have replaced the canines that a placental carnivore would have. The Thylacosmilids which had large saber like teeth which differed from the sabre-toothed cats elsewhere in the world due to sheaths that the Thylacosmilds had on their lower jaw.
The most notable similarity throughout these two continents in the Cenozoic was the Fauna. The Fauna and food chains of both of these continents were extremely similar down to a very fine point. At the top of the food chain both countries had large flightless birds.
Until sometime in the Cretaceous Period (146 to 65 million years ago), Australia, Antarctica, and South America all abutted one another in the southern supercontinent Gondwana. While they were attached, experts believe a single belt of forest likely stretched from southeastern Australia, through Antarctica.
The animal kingdom as developed in Australia presents us with anomalies and peculiarities perhaps even more remarkable than are exhibited by the plants.
Today no monotremes exist outside of Australia (and New Guinea), and no placental mammals that didn't fly or swim there—for example, bats or dugongs—existed in Australia. Why didn't monotremes use the connection to leave Australia? And why didn't placentals use it to enter Australia?
Paleontologists believe that the common ancestor that gave rise to the monito del monte, and the kangaroo and most or all other Australian marsupials, scurried from South America to Australia (through the intervening Antarctica) sometime before about 60 million years ago.
Australia, the smallest of the seven continents, is the world capital of two of the three types of mammal on Earth: the marsupials, like the kangaroo and koala, which nourish their young in pouches, and the monotremes, featuring the platypus and the echidnas, which nourish their young in eggs.
We have evidence that Antarctica possessed a mild climate and a rain forest flora throughout the Mesozoic and into the Tertiary as far, perhaps, as Lower Miocene. Secondly, there is demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct florae, a Mesozoic Gondwana flora, and a Tertiary flora with South American affinities.Flora that also occurs in both New Zealand and Australia.
If Antarctica possessed a rain forest flora through the length of time indicated, from the Jurassic into the Tertiary, it seems equally certain that it must have possessed a fauna. Some happy chance may in the future throw some palaeontological light upon the nature of this fauna, but it seems most likely that the mantle of ice and snow which covers the continent will keep the matter a mystery for us.
" We find that the Boopidae, Gyropidae, and Trimenoponidae occur upon marsupials, and upon South American Hystricomorph rodents, a group of which Matthew writes "No hypothesis satisfactorily explains the accepted relationship and distribution." There is no evidence that these parasites have ever existed on other mammals in more northerly lands, and it seems most probable that they would have left residuals here and there if such had been the case. So here again the greater probability lies with Antarctic connection between South America and Australia. It may be that at a later stage Australia was cut off from Antarctica and Africa joined, allowing of a migration of Hystricomorphs, but this raises a very complex question, bristling with difficulties, with which we are not here concerned".
"These facts, taken in conjunction with geological evidence, have led many naturalists to assume a much greater extension of the Antarctic Continent in past times which is supposed to have been connected with South America, Australia, and New Zealand, and possibly, at a very remote period with Madagascar, thus permitting the migration of land and freshwater animals to and from those countrie"s.
The existence of a coast-line connecting the various isolated parts of the southern hemisphere would, of course, also account for the community which exists between their littoral marine fauna.
It is impossible to enter here into the nature of this land-connexion which is becoming more and more a necessary hypothesis for the student of geographical distribution, whatever group of animals he may choose, but it may be remarked that the connexion was probably by means of rays of land passing up from an Antarctic continent to join the southernmost projections of Tierra del Fuego, Tasmania, and New Zealand."
Australia has been isolated from the northern land masses since the late Mesozoic, and that those portions of its fauna which had to depend upon land migration have come in from the south.
That the Antarctic continent had, during the greater part of the Mesozoic and the early Tertiary a temperate climate, and a rain-forest flora, and was therefore habitable by animals.
That there are geographical indications of former connections between this continent and South America, New Zealand, Australia, and Africa, which, taken in conjunction with the evidence from faunal distribution, render it probable that land migration has from time to time been possible along such connections. No other hypothesis is adequate to explain some cases of distribution.
That the Australian marsupials, together with the Parastacid crayfishes, the Leptodactylid and Hylid frogs, and a host of other forms, vertebrate and invertebrate, have reached Australia from South America by way of Antarctica.
All of the above gives a good solid base with which to allow us to theorize that the Australian Yowie as an upright marsupial, may have migrated from South America or an ice fee and tropical antartica at some distant point in the past.
So is there any evidence for a similar upright marsupial living in south America at any point?
Indeed there is : The traditionaLy interpreted Mapinguari creature of the Amazon basin ,complete with a reported "mouth" in its stomache, (which I will imediatly suggest is in fact a marsupial pouch rather than a mouth). Alternative suggestions of the creature being a giant sloth, in reality have no basis in fact and indeed are not even supported by eyewitness account of the creature even remotly resembling a giant sloth.
Modern interpretation of oral traditions, along with virtualy dismissing the accounts of native people having physical encounters with an upright bipedal creature, featuring a pouch on its frontal torso, have been dismissed by science as mis-identification by the traditional people of the area. This is just the same sort of intellectual arrogance that has dismissed thousands of reports over hundreds of years deatailing what we now call the yowie.
From this point I will make direct comparisons between the earliest accounts describing these two creatures as the eyewitnesses themselves have described them. Firstly one must suspend the inclination to imagine either the yowie or the Mapinguari as Sasquatch subspecies, simply because Sasquatch are not marsupials and could not have evovled and migrated from south America to Australia as described in detail above.
The name Mapinguari translates as “roaring animal” or “fetid beast”.
THE MOUTH ON THE CREATURES TORSO AREA:
The only possibility which would explain this characteristic as one which might occur in the natural world, would be if the creature has a pouch for carrying its young. This evolutionary adaptation is only seen in marsupials such as kangaroos, and koala's. Pouches are different amongst different marsupials, two kinds distinguishable (on the front or belly): opening towards the head and extending the cavity under the skin towards the tail (forward, or up) or opening towards the tail and extending towards the front legs (to the rear, backward or down).
THE YOWIE
As reported in The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser On Fri 31 May 1889
By a Mr. J. Higgins of Como whom writes...
"Attached to its back immediately above the tail, there swang abaggy appeudage, from which something living protruded, and which we took to be either its young or some animal captured and stored for food".
The Sun newspaper on 17 Nov 1912
Mr. Horace Saxon of Sackvllle, 'Hawksbury River, described the crearture as...
"...neIther ape, nor man, but may be' best described as marsupial man. The so-called hanging stomach seen by Mr Harper wasin reality the pouch inwhich it carries Its young, like other marsupials. The black baby when he pokeshead out of the pouch is strikingly like an aboriginal child andmuch more human than its grown parent".
FACT: Some marsupials lack the true, permanent pouches as seen in other species. Instead, they form temporary skin folds called "pseudo-pouches, in the mammary region when reproducing.
THE MAPINGUARI
The Mapinguari is said to have backwards feet.
THE YOWIE
Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal - 1902 reports
“The "Yahoo," (as we all know) is an animal said to resemble a man only that his body is covered with long hair, and his feet are turned backwards, there being where the heel should be."
THE MAPINGUARI
One of the most reliable early sightings was made by Ramón Lista in the late 19th century. While riding in Santa Cruz, he saw a shaggy red-haired creature run across the road ahead of him.He shot at the animal and was amazed that the bullets bounced off its skin.
THE YOWIE
The Richmond River Herald and Northern Districts Advertiser (NSW ) Fri 22 Jun 1906
"...Clifford, who had a 32 Winchester, had his arms at the moment busy working through the bush. As speedily as possible he fired. The animal which, he says, appeared to be 8ft high and 3ft broad, black in color, and covered with hair of great length, gave several un-earthly yells, something like a native bear, and made off. Clifford fired two more shots at it as it fled over a flat".
THE MAPINGUARI
Local people describe the beast as being ferocious, and able to move through the vegetation without making a sound.Other descriptors include long, powerful arms that could tear down a palm tree, and thick, matted fur. The creature is also said to emit a terrifying shriek.
THE YOWIE
Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser Fri 17 Jul 1896
A resident of Tenterfield has reported that he was attacked by a large hairy animal like a gorilla. An armed party have gone out in' pursuit of the creature.
Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW ) Sat 28 Aug 1886
"Whilst a young man named Flyn was ooking after stock at the back of the Bredbo station one afternoon last week, he was sur- prised to observe a hairy human form, about seven feet in height, walking in the bush.
The wild man walked with an unsteady, swinging, and fast step, his arms being bent forward and nearly reaching the ground,whilst the colour was described as " bay," be-tween a red and chestnut.
Flynn did not take a second look at the uncanny creature.but rode as fast as he could to the homestead of Mr. Crimmings, nearly two miles away, to whom he reported the strange, mysterious affair.
Since then, Mr. Crimmings himself has interviewed the monster, and his account tallies exactly with that given by Mr. Flynn. But Mr. Crimmings heard the animal make a cry that sounded very like " Yahoo."
We hear that Mr. Joseph Hart, of Jingera, also saw the "Yahoo" as he was returning home one afternoon. The strange being is, no doubt, the "wild man" that has been so often talked of about Jingera for so many years past."
THE MAPINGUARI
The Mapinguaris of local folklore have some disturbing characteristics (possibly exaggerated over the years as the legend grew), including having only one eye.
Its smell is putrid and its skin is seemingly impervious to arrows and bullets.
Another feature of the Mapinguari is that it is believed to be carnivorous, although there are no accounts of it ever eating humans.
They tend to attack cattle, killing them and ripping out their tongues with their sharp claws.
The Mapinguari seems to look like Bigfoot but retains certain sloth-like features.
THE YOWIE
The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser On Fri 31 May 1889
By a Mr. J. Higgins of Como whom writes...
As near as I can describe it,the creature appeared to be fully nine
feet in height; heal large, and resembling that of a baboon, but with a face
more human-like; arms long, black,muscular, and devoid of hair; body
large and round, almost balloon-shaped,legs otextraordinary length,Before disappearing over the summit of the hill, it turned around
and made several hideous grimmaces at us, displaying a double tier of long yel
low teeth".
THE MAPINGUARI
In 1975, a miner named Mário Pereira de Souza claimed he saw a Mapinguari at a mining camp along the Rio Jamauchím south of Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil.
He says he heard a scream and turned to see a huge creature advancing towards him on its hind legs. He remembers the creature’s awful stench.
A group of Kanamarí Indians in the Rio Juruá Valley state that they raised two Mapinguaris on bananas and milk. They say they released the creatures after about two years because their stench had become too much to bear. No one seems to know what happened to these Mapinguaris.
In 1994, biologist David Oren spoke to The New York Times about the fact that Amazonians were reporting sightings of Mapinguaris. He organized a trip to the Amazon, however this expedition failed to uncover any evidence.
Discover Magazine ran a story about a Brazilian man who had supposedly encountered a Mapinguari. Manuel Vitorino Pinheiro dos Santos, an experienced hunter, heard a blood-curdling scream while moving through the Amazon. Hiding in a river, Manuel heard the scream a further four times as the creature slowly moved away.
THE YOWIE
The Grenfell Record and Lachlan District Advertiser 1876:
“Leaving one of their young friends to boil the billy and prepare supper. While, so engagedthe young women was suddenly startled by observing a man, as she naturally imagined, at first sight, was one of their own party, coming towards the fire, on walking closer, discovered the appearance to be unsightly an inhuman, bearing in every way the shape of a man with a big red face, hands and legs covered all over with long, shaggy hair, from fright she became almost spell-bound, screamed and screeched but unable to run. The men, on hearing such unearthly cries, left their fishing lines and ran with all speed towards their comrade;
She describes the creature:
"The head was covered with dark grisly hair, the face with shaggy darkish hair, the; back and belly and down the legs covered with hair of a lighter colour. This devil-devil or -whatever it may be called doubled round and hurriedly made back towards the fire and woman again.”
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Re: Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by paulmcleod67 » Fri Feb 02, 2018 12:29 am

Neglected to add these files.
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Re: Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by paulmcleod67 » Fri Feb 02, 2018 1:01 am

Mapinguari and Yowie observed commonalities...
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Re: Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by Yowiechow » Sat Feb 03, 2018 10:29 pm

It's an interesting theory but there isn't any evidence within the fossil record to indicate that Marsupials had a period of convergent evolution with great apes. The most likely scenario is that Yeti's, sasquatches, yowies and their kin had a common ancestor that evolved in Asia, probably along side gigantopithecus. This ancestor species would be able to diversify throughout Asia, hence why we have report of bigfoot like creatures from China, India and Tibet and as far west as russia. It probably also used the bering land bridge to reach America and the land bridges that existed periodically through out southern asia and melanesia to get to Australia. There is fossil evidence that one humanoid group made it to Flores and then there is the obvious example of the Aboriginal peoples. It's entirely plausible that an ape-like Humanoid species could have made the same journey.

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Re: Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by Simon M » Sun Feb 04, 2018 2:22 am

Yowiechow wrote:
Sat Feb 03, 2018 10:29 pm
It's an interesting theory but there isn't any evidence within the fossil record to indicate that Marsupials had a period of convergent evolution with great apes. The most likely scenario is that Yeti's, sasquatches, yowies and their kin had a common ancestor that evolved in Asia, probably along side gigantopithecus. This ancestor species would be able to diversify throughout Asia, hence why we have report of bigfoot like creatures from China, India and Tibet and as far west as russia. It probably also used the bering land bridge to reach America and the land bridges that existed periodically through out southern asia and melanesia to get to Australia. There is fossil evidence that one humanoid group made it to Flores and then there is the obvious example of the Aboriginal peoples. It's entirely plausible that an ape-like Humanoid species could have made the same journey.
This is all completely true, but as the fossil record is incomplete and we still don't know for certain what Yowies actually are I think Paul's idea is still a possibility.

The stuff about Tierra del Fuego is interesting and their similarities to indigenous Australian people have been noted by a number of people, but no one can explain it properly. There have also been comparisons made between Australian indigenous people and the people who live in certain regions of India - again, no one has ever done anything more than note certain observable similarities. We'll most likely never know the whole story, but it's plain that there are massive gaps in our knowledge.

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Re: Impact crustal displacement and the marsupial mystery.

Unread post by jai » Sat Feb 17, 2018 3:38 pm

Here's an interesting article I read last year. It rules out the idea that people from India migrated to Australia about 5000 years ago as previously thought.

'At Least 50,000 Years': DNA Study Confirms Indigenous Australian History'

The first complete sequences of the Y chromosomes of Aboriginal Australian men have revealed a deep Indigenous genetic history tracing all the way back to the initial settlement of the continent 50,000 years ago, according to Australian research.

The study by researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, collaborators at La Trobe University in Melbourne and several other Australian institutes, challenges a previous theory that suggested an influx of people from India into Australia around four to five thousand years ago.


This new DNA sequencing study focused on the Y chromosome, which is transmitted only from father to son, and found no support for such a prehistoric migration. The results instead show a long and independent genetic history in Australia.

Modern humans arrived in Australia about 50 thousand years ago, forming the ancestors of present-day Aboriginal Australians. They were amongst the earliest settlers outside Africa. They arrived in an ancient continent made up of today’s Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, called Sahul, probably thousands of years before modern humans arrived in Europe.

Five thousand years ago, dingos, the native dogs, somehow arrived in Australia, and changes in stone tool use and language around the same time raised the question of whether there were also associated genetic changes in the Australian Aboriginal population. At least two previous genetic studies, one of which was based on the Y chromosome, had proposed that these changes could have coincided with mixing of Aboriginal and Indian populations about 5 thousand years ago.

Anders Bergstrӧm, first author on the paper at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said "We worked closely with Aboriginal Australian communities to sequence the Y chromosome DNA from 13 male volunteers to investigate their ancestry. The data show that Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes are very distinct from Indian ones. These results refute the previous Y chromosome study, thus excluding this part of the puzzle as providing evidence for a prehistoric migration from India. Instead, the results are in agreement with the archaeological record about when people arrived in this part of the world."

"Clearly there is keen interest in the Aboriginal community to explore their genetic ancestry and without them this study would not be possible -- our first step was to return their results to them, before the scientific article was published," explained Dr John Mitchell, Associate Professor at La Trobe University in Melbourne. "This collaboration in genome sequencing, to explore their ancient history, was made possible by years of engagement beforehand with Aboriginal communities."

Further study is needed to answer questions, such as how the dingo did get to Australia and why other people -- such as the seafaring Polynesians -- didn’t settle on the continent. Expanding the genetic analyses beyond the Y chromosome and to the whole genome will also be necessary to completely rule out external genetic influences on the Aboriginal Australian population before the very recent times.

Lesley Williams, who was responsible for the liaison with the Aboriginal community, said "As an Aboriginal Elder and cultural consultant for this project I am delighted, although not surprised, that science has confirmed what our ancestors have taught us over many generations, that we have lived here since the Dreaming."

"By fully sequencing and analysing Y-chromosomal DNA, we have been able to trace ancient human migrations and inform living people about their ancestry," added Dr Chris Tyler Smith, group leader at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "We are using the latest technology to genetically unearth our ancient history -- something that has only become possible in the last decade. We look forward to further collaborations to understand more of this unique heritage."

https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2016/02/at-l ... n-history/


As for the dingo getting here, I remember reading somewhere that it was believed that they were used as trading tools between the Indonesians and Australian Aborigines.

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